Money Market, Forex and General News 30-07-09
Friday, July 31, 2009
Money Market opened at 13 percent. Later on SBP conducted OMO and injected Rs 11 billion for two days in the market @ 12.63 percent. Money closed at 12 percent.
Inter bank opened at 83.15 & 83.25.Rupee depreciated to 83.35 as demand pressures remained persistent in the market. Market closed at 83.20 & 83.25
SPI for the week ended 23 Jul-09 posted a surge of 3.3% MoM. Although MoM inflation remained in the positive zone mostly since FY01, the quantum of increase in recent period is concering. In terms of CPI, the dominant factor of higher base will persist till Dec- 09, however, factors including 1) electricity prices 2) int'l oil and other commodity prices and 3) expected price hikes in Ramadan season, have a considerable capacity to offset the base impact.
Govt. of Pakistan is planning to release PkR 20 bn in the first week of August to retire small portion of the circular debt in an effort to clear the entire circular debt by the end of calendar year 2009. The circular debt issue was severed as power companies build up huge payments for the fuel to oil & gas marketing companies which in turn has brought liquidity crunch to refineries and exploration companies threatening the continuity of fuel supply to power companies. In an another step, Pakistan Electric Power Company (Pepco) was also allowed to obtain loans from commercial banks to meet its financial obligations on account of power generation in order to ease off some pressure.
posted @ 12:47 PM, ,
Money Market, Forex and General News 29-07-09
Thursday, July 30, 2009
State Bank conducted auction of Treasury Bills today in which bids for three and six months were rejected while cut off rate for one year bill came at 11.8769 percent. Market went aggressively to buy one year bill with participation of over Rs 99 billion out of aggregate participation of Rs 116.90 billion but Central Bank accepted only Rs49.350 billion.
Pakistani Rupee remains under pressure vs. the greenback amidst heavy buying for oil import payment. Dollar has crossed PkR 83 psychological mark as the central bank had earlier asked the oil companies to buy currency from the interbank market discontinuing the previous practice of central bank arranging the currency for oil
imports. In FY09, oil imports totalled USD 9.5 bn (28% of country’s imports) making up the single largest category of imports. However, any delay from IMF in the release of 3rd tranche of the loan can violate the relationship as proposed by relative purchasing power parity (RPPP).
Pakistan that is under financial assistance through loan agreement with IMF has informed the lending authorities that the country cannot withdraw subsidies all of a sudden thus the government would provide subsidy of PkR 55bn to people friendly sectors that include power sector , fertilizer sector etc. The government feels that it is not practical to eliminate subsidy all of a sudden as it would seriously affect the workability of the sector. Feed-stock gas, a key raw material for urea production, is heavily subsidized that ensures urea’s affordability to framers thus keeping price of wheat and other essential commodities at affordable level.
posted @ 2:59 PM, ,
ACA (England and Wales) - Qualification Road Map For ICAP Members
Wednesday, July 29, 2009
Apply for exemption from 11 of the 12 Professional Stage exams. The ICAEW have agreed to waive all fees of these exemptions. The availability of a fee waiver will be reviewed later this year, but is guaranteed to stay until 31 December 2009 (this is for applications received and agreed by ICAEW before this date). For exemptions in these 11 subjects ICAEW can only accept hard copy applications. To get the hard copy of it click here
Register as an ACA independent student. For both exemptions and student registration ICAEW can only accept hard copy applications. The application to register as an independent student can be found here
Once the registration and exemptions have been completed it is then just a matter of sitting, and passing, the 4 exams - and the online ethics module.
posted @ 4:06 PM, ,
The Central Bank will conduct a Treasury Bill auction tomorrow.The target amount is PkR.45 billion. There is a strong expectation of increase in the cut-off yields.
Inter-bank opened at much higher level then yesterday at 82.80 & 82.90.Local currency was seen under immense strain as rupee breached psychological level of “83” and shot up to 83.24. Demand pressures seem to have deflated the rupee strongly against USD. Finally Rupee shed thirty five basis points to close at 83.15 & 83.25.
The MoC has announced the Trade Policy for FY09-12 with the objective to attain a sustainable economic growth through exports.Although, there are number of measures mentioned in the policy, the most significant one is the compensation provided to cement exporters in terms of inland freight (though the quantum is not known). On the textile front, value addition in cotton from USD 1,000 to USD1,500/bale till 2012 seems challenging due to the supply side issues at the local front along with the demand issues with major trade partners.
The government had paid Rs 66.00 bn to Oil Marketing Companies in FY09 for payment against subsidy on petroleum products (Petroleum Development Claims – PDC). The government loaded heavy PDC on diesel and gasoline in 1HFY09 after oil prices spiked towards US$147/bbl. However, softening of crude prices in 2HFY09 enabled the government to recover the subsidy through Petroleum Development Levy (PDL). Payment against PDC remained outstanding despite heavy taxes. Reportedly the government is still to pay PRs11bn to OMCs under PDC.
Source: NBP Treasury
posted @ 10:38 AM, ,
Money Market, Forex and General News 27-07-09
Tuesday, July 28, 2009
Money market opened at 10.75 percent. Overnight repo rates bottomed at 9.25 but later on market tightened to 13.50 and closed at the same level.
Inter bank opened at 82.50 & 82.55.Persistent demand pressures depreciated rupee to 82.70.After losing thirteen basis points at bid and offer, market closed at 82.63 & 82.68.
Government has projected Exports growth of 29 percent in next three years while growth target for fiscal year 2009-10 is set to be six percent Exports target for FY-09 was set at $22 billion initially which was revised later on but even then target was missed by sizeable amount and total exports managed to reach just $17.781
billion. Moreover Trade Policy would concentrate on four major issues including establishment of a hedge fund to counter any adverse revision in interest rates, insurance of foreign buyers, availability of credit to industry and commitment of Wapda to supply power to industrial sector.
Government would roll over loan of Rs 3 billion taken from consortium led by NBP for Financial Improvement Plan (FIP) of Karachi Electric Supply Corporation KESC).Government had committed to finance Rs 13 billion through Public Sector
Development Program (PSDP).However due to budgetary constraints government arranged Rs 10.698 billion through PSDP while rest was financed through bank led consortium, which was to be paid off by October 2008.Even though the loan is over due,
payment period has now been extended to October 2009 with mark up of 6Month KIBOR plus 100 basis points.
Source: National Bank - Treasury Management Group
posted @ 10:45 AM, ,
Names of Qualified Chartered Accountants-Summer 2009
Monday, July 27, 2009
- MEHDI RAZA JAVA
- MUHAMMAD ASIF KHAN
- MUDDASAR KHALID
- KHIZAR HAYYAT
- AMJAD MUSTAFA
- ZAHID HUSSAIN
- ALI ASGHAR
- WAJAHAT ALI KHAN
- YOUSUF ALI
- SHAFIQ UR RAHMAN
- SAJJAD AHMAD
- SYED WAJAHAT AHMAD
- MUHAMMAD FAHAD
- ZAKRIA HUSSNAIN
- FAISAL AFTAB AHMAD
- FUAD HAIDER SYED
- NAEEM AHMAD KHAN
- IMTIAZ JALEEL
- BILAL HUSSAIN
- IMRAN ASAD
- SHAHID SAUD-UL-HASSAN
- NADIA SALEEM
- SHOAIB MUHAMMAD KHAN
- USMAN ISHAQ RAJA
- AFSHEEN SHAKOOR
- ASIF MAHMOOD
- ABDUL RAHMAN KHAN
- MUHAMMAD MUBASHIR FAROOQ
- MUHAMMAD AZEEM
- ASIF AHMED
- TALHA HASSAN JAFRI
- KAMRAN UZ ZAMAN KHAN
- NAVEED KAMRAN
- YASIR SAEED KIRMANI
- NIDA SALAHUDDIN
- MUHAMMAD TARIQ RAFIQUE
- KHURRAM SHAHZAD
- MUHAMMAD USMAN TAHIR FAROOQI
- USMAN SADDIQUE
- SABOOR SADIQ RANA
- HUMAYUN GUL
- MUHAMMAD FAHAD PARVAIZ
- HAFIZ MUHAMMAD ARSHAD
- FAUZIA RASHID
- SAQIB IBRAHEEM
- SYED ATIF GUL SHAH
- MUHAMMAD SAQIB IQBAL
- SYED MUHAMMAD HUMAYUN JAMIL
- MUHAMMAD ADIL ASHRAF
- FARYAD ALI
- OSAMA BIN SHAUKAT
- MUDASSIR HABIB KHAN
- FAISAL NAEEM
- MUHAMMAD HASNAIN RAZA
- SYED ALI AZHER HASANI
- MADIHA TAJ SIDDIQUI
- ALI RAZA
- MUHAMMAD MUJTABA AHSAN
- ZIAD BIN WASIM CHOWDHREY
- MUHAMMAD MAJID
- TAHIR SHAH
- MUHAMMAD YOUSUF
- MOHSINA AKRAM
- AHMAD RASHID
- JAWAD ALI
- SAMIA HUSAIN
- SYED MUHAMMAD SHADMAN
- AMBREEN MUKHTAR
- AHMED HASSAN ALI KHOJA
- SALMAN SALEEM
- MUHAMMAD SAAD KASMANI
- SYEDA SAFURA FATIMA
- FARWA SADIQ
- SYED HUZAIFA HAMID
- MOIZ MANSOOR
- RIFFAT JABEEN
- ASIF MAHMOOD
- BEENISH MALIK
- AHMAD FARHAN ZAFAR
- MARYAM TAHIR
- SUMAIRA YASIN
- ANAS IQBAL
- MUHAMMAD JUNAID
- ABDUL SATTAR SHAIKH
- MUHAMMAD HAMED
- NOUMAN SHAHZAD USMANI
- MUHAMMAD FAKHIR
- BASIT SAMEER
- ASAD SARWAR
- UZAIR ANJUM
- MUHAMMAD ARQAM
- MUHAMMAD YOUSUF IMTIAZ
- HUMERA HAYAT
- MUHAMMAD JEHANZEB
- SHOAIB AHMED SHAMIM
- ALI FAIZAN KHAN
- AAMIR SHAUKAT HUSSAIN
- SAAD SIDDIQUI
- SALIMA NADIR ALI
- UMAIR SUALEH
- ALI ATHAR
- IMRAN ULLAH KHAN
- MOHAMMAD ZUBAIR KHAN
- MUHAMMAD SHAHRAM BUTT
- NAVEED SAIFUDDIN AKBARALLY
- AYESHA FATIMA
- NAVEED ABDUL HAMEED
- SOHAIB HANIF
- AMMAR ALTAF MOUSANI
- AQEEL DALAL
- RAJA MUHAMMAD WAQAS GUL
- SAADIA MUSHTAQ
- HINA ASHRAF KHAN
- MUHAMMAD SUFYAN
- MATEEN SADIQ
- MUZAMMIL HASSAN FARHAN
- GHULAM MOHIYUDDIN
- SALMAN KHOJA
- MUHAMMAD MAJID KHAN
- SHAHID ANWAR SHAH
- QAISAR SOHAIL
- MUHAMMAD ARIF SIDDIQ
- NIBRAS MASOOM
- FAISAL TARIQ
- BILAL KHALED
- MALIK AMIR AHMED
- MUHAMMAD WAQAS HASSAN
- SARAH ANWER
- MUHAMMAD SHOAIB SIDDIQUI
- ASHFAQ HASAN KHAN
- OMER RAFIQ SHEKHANI
- NAVEED ARIF
- SAFAR ALI
- MUBASHIR UL HAQ
- ABDUL QADIR
- ASGHAR OMAIR
- RAHEEL LALANI
- FAHAD AHMED
- ROHAIL AZIZ
- SAJJAD HUSSAIN
- MUHAMMAD FAIZAN ASLAM
- UHAMMAD UMAIR ARIF
- SAAD JAHANZEB KHAN
- MOHAMMAD FARID AHMED MEMON
- DUR E NAYAB HUSSAIN
- ABDUL RAUF ALI KHAN
- MUHAMMAD SHAHID ASLAM
- MAJID ASGHAR ALI
- FARAZ HUSSAIN
- MAHWISH SARFRAZ SAIFY
- ABID ALI
- SHAH RUKH MEMON
- SYED KAZIM RAZA
- TAHIR SARTAJ
- RUKHSAR AHMED
- MUHAMMAD FARAZ NASEER
- ANUM NASEER
- SHARIQ EJAZ
- WAQAR ALAM
- MUHAMMAD UMAIR ISMAIL
- SADIA YASMIN
- ZEESHAN RAUF
- ADNAN ASLAM
- MOHAMMAD AMIN GHULAM
- TAHIR HAMEED
- SYED YOUSUF HASAN
- AYESHA ABDULLA
- KULSOOM FATIMA KHALID
posted @ 9:47 AM, ,
Job Placement - ICAP
Saturday, July 25, 2009
The details are as follows:
- ICAP will segregate them and before sending it for a particular job opening/ assignment they will touch base with the individual.
- You are required to send the CV by email by indicating the nature of work, job or assignment you are interested in and also send the following details;
- If you are looking for a job, whether you have any preference for working in profession or industry (or any specific sector of industry).
- If you are interested in training or teaching or research, the subject(s) and timing (part time or full time).
You may send the detail at following this email address
posted @ 10:40 AM, ,
Fraud Detection And Deterrence - An Internal Auditor's Perspective
Friday, July 24, 2009
When a fraud comes to light, the typical reactions range from asking how it happened, what the loss is, who are involved, to why it had not been spotted earlier.
Public vs Auditors' Expectations in Fraud Detection
The public tends to expect auditors to detect frauds in the course of their work. Auditors however see it as unrealistic to expect them to scope their audits to detect fraud as well. They focus their work on areas with direct or indirect impact on a company's bottom line e.g. Plugging revenue leakages, recovering overpayments, improving internal controls, enhancing corporate governance practices, etc. Fraud discovery is mostly not the focus of their procedures. They scope their work and review transactions based on samples. A fraud, particularly if it is not massive, might not be visible from samples and normal audit procedures. Auditors do not check every transaction. Even if they do, some clever collusive frauds (involving two or more persons, usually an employee and an outsider like a supplier) would probably go undetected.
Recent surveys have shown that the majority of frauds were committed by insiders. The management of an organization should therefore be vigilant that their operating environment is not conducive to fraud.
Environments Conducive to Fraud Activities
Environments that are conducive to fraud include the following:
High-growth, fast-paced organization
It is common to find that controls are secondary where employees are under pressure to grow the business, especially that of its overseas locations. Often, in such an organization, systems and controls do not adequately keep pace with the organization' s growth.
High incidence of management over-ride
Where over-ride of policies and procedures by a manager becomes rampant, the possibility of fraud and abuse increases because of compromise in internal controls. The attitude in such organizations towards internal controls is generally poor.
Employee highly protective of his or her areas of responsibility
The employee's tactic is usually to "put-off and intimidate" anyone prying into his or her areas of responsibility. The intention is to discourage further questions. There is normally an air of resistance and impatience when dealing with such an employee
High concentration of control in one person
Even though it might appear that responsibilities of an area are split organizationally, there is, in reality, one central person who is in control. He is the chief who directs. The other employees merely perform their functions in a cursory manner. The other employees are reluctant to answer any queries and would refer to the chief for answers.
General lack of segregation of duties
In today's IT-driven processes, it is common to find an employee performing what auditors describe as "conflicting or incompatible duties". A simple example is a human resource person who maintains employees' pay records also processs the payroll. While it might be more efficient (and cost-effective) to have the two functions done by the same individual, it increases the risk of abuse by the employee concerned.
The obliging IT department
The IT department that earnestly obliges its internal customers might unwittingly end up helping a fraudster in his or her activities. In such incidents, the fraudster would ask for program and systems changes. In form, the changes are to help him or her to be more efficient and effective, but, in intention, the changes are to aid and cover-up his or her fraudulent activities.
Fraud Deterrence Measures
The starting point to mitigate the risk of fraud is to have stated organizational policies and procedures and build detective and preventive controls into the procedures.
The logic in fraud deterrence is that employees who perceive that they will be caught are less likely to commit it. Therefore internal controls can have a deterrent effect only when employees perceive that such controls exist for the purpose of uncovering fraud.
It follows then that an organization should increase the perception of detection. Such steps include the following:
Employees should be given anti-fraud training, or at the very least, basic fraud awareness. In this way, they become the eyes and ears of the organization and with the education, will be more likely to report possible fraud activity.
Having such a policy stating clearly the organization' s stand and how it will deal with fraud perpetrators would send a clear message to employees of the organization' s zero-tolerance for anyone who commits fraud.
This measure is particularly beneficial to smaller businesses where the impact of fraud activities is frequently significant to the bottom line. The effectiveness of this measure would increase if the company has a policy of job rotation and enforced annual leave. Because many frauds require continuous manual intervention by the perpetrator, the chances of uncovering fraud activities are high when his or her job is being rotated.
The threat of surprise audits, especially in currency-intensive businesses, would be a strong deterrent to fraud compared to normal audits that are announced in advance, giving fraud perpetrators time to cover their tracks.
There are many more scenarios that pose high risks of fraud and much more an organization can do to detect and deter fraud. The point is for management to be vigilant, to recognize probable areas and remain conscious of fraud possibilities when going about their work. Being aware and taking the necessary preventive and corrective actions could well deter or avert a fraud.
posted @ 10:56 AM, ,
Money Market, Forex and General News 22-07-09
Thursday, July 23, 2009
Money market opened at 13.25 percent and topped at 13.75 percent. Due to liquidity crunch, Central Bank conducted Open Market operations (Rev-Repo) for three days. The amount accepted was PkR. 18.4 billion at 12.61 percent. As a result of that market went down and closed at 11.25 percent.
Inter-bank opened at 82.05 & 82.10.Market remained calm and no drastic movement was seen either way. Rupee gained just two basis points at bid and offer to close at 82.03 & 82.08.
Since the last policy statement released on April 20th, market has priced another steep cut in policy rates in the debt market. This is reflected from the bullish bond, T-bill and KIBOR trends. All adjusted in the range of 100-150bps.
Fundamentally speaking macro imbalances are in corrective phase through inflation and twin deficit improving, whilst, economic growth has emerged as a prime victim
of the stabilization program.This can be reflected from contraction in LSM (14%) during April and flat private credit off take trend in the past twelve months.
On the basis of these, the balance of risk is clearly highlighting a steep cut in policy rate. However, other side of the coin is disturbing and questioning the steep cut. To be clear, government has planned ambitious development target on the basis of exaggerated tax and external financing mode.
Any slippage would definitely warrant a shift in monetary and fiscal transmission from neutral to aggressive. Hence, the key from here is the flow of external financing.
posted @ 10:51 AM, ,
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posted @ 10:12 AM, ,
CRR and SLR
Wednesday, July 22, 2009
SLR is Statutory Liquidity Reserve - required to be invested into SBP's prescribed securities (generally Govt. Securities) @19% of Demand & Time Liabilities. This is applicable for PKR only, as for FCY, is is 15% and is required to be placed with the SBP.
However, banks are not required to keep above 'PKR' related requirements against Demand & Time Liabilities with 'original maturity of 1 year and above.
posted @ 11:42 AM, ,
However, CBJ Deputy Governor Kholoud Saqqaf stressed that the sector is capable of overcoming the crisis due to strict monitoring and supervision policies adopted by the Central Bank, which she said were already in place even before the global economic slowdown.
Experts in Jordan, meanwhile, say that the CBJ should further tighten its supervision measures on banks and be prepared to act promptly to meet any challenges posed by the coming phase of the global economic crisis warned of in a recent report by the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
"The CBJ acts slowly towards the country's economy by adopting the 'status quo' policy," economist Yusuf Mansur said, describing the banking system in Jordan as "unhealthy" because it is highly concentrated and dominated by two or three banks.
The IMF report, issued in May, said although the direct effects of the global financial crisis on the banking sector in Jordan have been limited, enhanced financial policies and supervision will remain key in the period ahead.
In addition to tighter supervision, contingency plans for dealing with troubled banks should be developed and prompt corrective action frameworks should also be established to set the rules for government intervention, the IMF report indicated.
The IMF acknowledged that the CBJ has taken some steps in that direction, including instructing banks to raise their capital. The CBJ's deputy governor said the bank even does more than required.
For example, "the minimum capital adequacy ratio worldwide is 8 per cent, but the CBJ has set the minimum ratio in Jordan at 12 per cent to protect depositors and promote the stability and efficiency of the Kingdom's financial system," Saqqaf noted.
Recently, the CBJ cited the dissolving of the board of directors of Capital Bank as an outcome of its policy to better streamline the industry. It appointed an administrative committee to manage the bank for six months under its supervision, saying the measure was precautionary and temporary to rectify the situation of the bank's administration, pointing out that corporate governance issues were behind the decision.
Mansur described the central bank's move as "good" but said the CBJ was slow in implementing its supervision measures as violations at Capital Bank had been noticed three months earlier.
Economist Ali Tabbalat told The Jordan Times on Saturday that "the CBJ is on the right track but should keep a close watch on banks' corporate loans".
"Defaulted loans by companies are expected to increase due to the financial crisis as firms may have liquidity problems," Tabbalat added, noting that banks' strict lending policies would naturally have a negative impact on the economy, though these restrictions are "justified".
Meanwhile, Fahmi Abu Dayeh, chief economist at a local bank, said that the CBJ has shown sound supervision of banks and managed, as a result, to protect the banking system in Jordan.
The financial policies of the CBJ are effective enough, but should also include continuous follow-up on risk related to credit facilities, he said, indicating that monetary measures in Jordan are relatively sound, especially when compared to other countries in the region.
Jordan has taken steps to ease monetary policy in light of the fall in international commodity prices and the decline in domestic inflation, with the CBJ lowering policy interest rates by 150 basic points (bps) in three steps during late 2008 and early 2009. The CBJ also reduced reserve requirements by 300bps to 7 per cent.
The experts differed on the issue of strict lending policies.
Mansur said that banks have not eased their policies on credit facilities despite CBJ measures to encourage a flow of cash into the market, which he said has negatively affected development in the Kingdom.
"Banks lowered interest rates on deposits and in many cases increased them on credit facilities, thus increasing their own margins while starving the nation for credit," the economist noted.
However, Abu Dayeh, agreeing with Tabbalat, believes banks' lending measures, which he called "classical banking", are justified because they respond to risk management rules.
According to CBJ figures, credit facilities extended through licensed banks declined by JD179 million, or 1.4 per cent, standing at JD12,865 million at the end of April 2009 compared with its level at the end of 2008, while total deposits reached JD18.9 billion, an increase of JD875.6 million, or 4.8 per cent, over their level at the end of 2008.
Domestic liquidity was up at the end of April 2009, growing by JD643.8 million, or 3.5 per cent compared with its level at the end of the previous year, to total JD18.9 billion.
posted @ 10:22 AM, ,
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posted @ 9:43 AM, ,
Money Market, Forex and General Updates - 21-07-09
Tuesday, July 21, 2009
Money market remained tight on Tuesday as market opened at 13 percent, touched high of 13.90 percent and closed at the same point
Inter bank opened at 82.10 & 82.15.Market topped at 82.20 but later on rupee gained some strength against US dollar and touched bottom of 82.05.Rupee gained ten basis points at bid and offer to close at 82.00 & 82.05.
Inflow of foreign portfolio investment continued for the consecutive fifth week and equity market witnessed net buying of USD 3.6 mn during the last week. During the current month the offshore investor remained net buyer of worth USD 8 mn at the equity market. The current trend in portfolio investment can be attributed to improving law and order situation, stability in local political scene and expectations on improvement in bilateral relations with India. Beside that signs of improvement in macro economic indicators of the country and expectations of good return can be the other reasons for offshore investor’s interest in the local equity market.
Pakistan’s fiscal policy continues to remain in a state of flux. Doubts have been raised on the tax revenue target of ~PRs1.5tr since the FY10 budget was unveiled. This combined with post budget amendments and extension of power subsidy point to a potential cut in budgeted PRs783bn development expenditure, if budget deficit is
to be capped at 4.9% of GDP for FY10E.
posted @ 11:53 PM, ,
ICAP is going to announce CA Final Result (Module-E and F) at Monday (27-07-2009). I wish all the best to my friends especially Labeeb Subhani, Muhammd Kamran, Fawad Haider, Noor-un-Nabi, Tehseen Iqbal, Faisal Raza, Ahsan and Ghulam Abbas.
posted @ 11:08 AM, ,
Money Market, Forex and General News - 17-07-2009
Saturday, July 18, 2009
Excessive interest from the banking sector in government papers has driven yields down and widened the spread between the discount rate and yields in FY09.Continuing inflationary pressures and a weakening PKR will likely limit the magnitude of discount rate cut,if any..
Inter bank opened at 82.20 & 82.25.Dollar moved both ways as market continued the volatile trend. Market topped at 82.27 but eased down later and touched bottom of 82.10.Greenback shed fifteen basis points at bid and offer to close at 82.05 & 82.10.
The apex regulator in the country initiated an enquiry against 5 brokers whose trading rights were earlier suspended on the complaints of investors on the settlement of claims. These settlement issues are basically the fallout of crisis taking place towards the end of Calender Year 08 following imposition of floor on the market index.
The country’s current account deficit (CAD) has shrunk by 36% in FY09 to USD 8.86 bn as compared to USD 13.87 bn in the previous fiscal year. Prime reason for this shrinkage is fall in the oil and other commodity prices following global recession. Oil comprises highest proportion of the country’s imports. Another reason for falling CAD is the local economic slowdown and steep currency depreciation that led to decrease in the demand of imports. Given the fact that exports have not in any way contributed to the falling deficit, the country stands vulnerable to the commodity prices rising again post any global economic recovery signs.
posted @ 11:26 AM, ,
Blogging is Like Building a Home
Friday, July 17, 2009
posted @ 12:34 PM, ,
The MoF held an auction for T-bills on 15 Jul-09 borrowing Rs57bn against a target of Rs45bn. Compared to the last auction, cut-off yields for 3M, 6M and 12M T-bills declined by 156, 93 and 71bps to settle at 11.42%, 11.51%, and 11.54% respectively.
Significantly higher participation in longer term papers with relatively lower cut-off yields confirms our expectation of longer term instruments at low level yields going forward.
Inter bank opened at 82.25 & 82.30.Market topped at 82.38 but no drastic swings were seen today. Market moved just two basis points to close at 82.27 & 82.32.
- Pakistan on Wednesday reached an initial agreement with the World Bank and Asian Development Bank to raise power tariff by 22-26 percent in a phased manner during the current financial year 2009-10.
- SBP has announced that all purchases of foreign exchange related to import of diesel and other refined products will be made by banks from the interbank market from August’09 onwards. From Feb’10 onwards, purchase of crude will also be made via this
- Oil prices rose more than 3 percent to above $61 a barrel on Wednesday, supported by falling US crude oil inventories and economic optimism following positive US data. US crude rose $2.05 to $61.57 a barrel by 2:31 pm EDT (1721 GMT), after reaching a high of $61.98 a barrel. London Brent crude gained $2.22 to $63.08 a barrel.
Source: NBP Treasury
posted @ 10:23 AM, ,
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Wednesday, July 15, 2009
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posted @ 10:53 AM, ,
The State Bank of Pakistan is scheduled to target a T-bill auction of Rs45bn on 15 Jul-09. A maturity of Rs15bn is also scheduled for the subsequent day, translating into a net outflow of Rs30bn from the money market. Current money market rates suggest the cut-off to be even lower this time round.
All indicators leading up to the Monetary Policy on 25th July point to a cut in the policy rate. CPI has receded by ~12ppt since its worst level in Oct-08 (25%), National Savings Scheme rates were recently slashed ~175bp.
There was a lot of volatility in the interbank forex market. There was supply in the market which pushed the USD/PkR parity downwards.
YoY CPI declined to 13.1% in June-09 from its high of 25% in Oct-08. Likewise, period average inflation settled at 20.8% for FY09 (Jul-Jun) compared to 12% in FY08, 2) Pakistan received the highest ever remittances of US$7.8bn in FY09, 21% higher YoY 3) Trade deficit for FY09 was lower by 19% YoY to US$17bn. Meanwhile on a MoM basis, inflation and trade deficit were both higher by 100bp and 70% to US$1.8bn. Looking ahead, we expect YoY inflation to continue a downward trend (we do not rule out single digit CPI in Oct-09) primarily due to base effect whereas trade deficit is expected to contract further by 11% YoY in FY10E. However continued upsurge in commodity prices remains the key risk to both inflation and trade deficit.
KSE board may okay re-launching of deliverable futures in 10 scrips As a reaction to the dip in trading volumes at the bourses, the KSE is expected to table for BoD approval the proposal for relaunching deliverable futures at the KSE. In the initial stage, 10 scrips will be traded on the counter.
posted @ 9:11 AM, ,
Money Market, Forex and General News - 13-07-2009
Tuesday, July 14, 2009
Money market opened at 10.50 percent. State Bank conducted OMO in which funds worth Rs 11 billion were mopped up from the market for three days at 11.0 percent.Consequently overnight rates went up to 13.90 percent and market closed at the same level as well.
Inter-bank opened at much higher level i.e. at 82.20 & 80.25.Rupee continued the declining trend against USD and has shed ninety basis points since the beginning of current month. Rupee toppled to 82.45, day’s highest point. After shedding twenty basis points at bid & offer each, market closed at 82.40 & 82.45.
Sales of passenger cars and Light Commercial Vehicles (LCVs)during FY09 declined by 47% to 99,307 units as against 187,412 units in FY10 due to obvious reasons of local currency depreciation, high cost of auto financing due to high interest rates, political instability and law & order situation in the country during the outgoing fiscal year. On YoY basis cars and LCVs sales declined by 49.7% and 27.8% respectively. The high end car segment was less affected by the above mentioned factors and declined by 31% while 800cc and 1000cc segments declined by 57% and 67% respectively.
As a result, PSMC’s market share declined to 52% in FY09 from 62% in FY08 due to its heavy presence in the low end vehicles segment while INDUS and HCAR’s market share increased from 26% and 8% to 35% and 11% respectively during the same period.
posted @ 2:19 PM, ,
Takaful - Mutual Assistance Under Islam
Saturday, July 11, 2009
Meaning of Takaful
Takaful comes from the Arabic root-word 'kafala'- guarantee. Takaful means mutual protection and joint guarantee. Operationally, Takaful refers to participants mutually contributing to the same fund with the purpose of having mutual indemnity in the case of peril or loss.
Al Quran: ’Help (ta awan) one another in furthering virtue (birr) and Allah consciousness (taqwa) and do not help one another in furthering evil and enmity" al maidah: verse 2 (5:2).
Takaful is a form of mutual help (ta'awun) in furthering good/virtue by helping others who are in need/in hardship. Takaful provides a strategy of risk mitigation/reduction by virtue of collective risk taking that distributes risks and losses to large numbers of participants. This mitigates the otherwise very damaging losses, if borne individually.
Basic Elements of Takaful
o Mutuality and cooperation.
o Tabarru (contribution)
o Eliminates the elements of Gharrar,Maisir and Riba.
o Wakalah/Modarabah basis of operations.
o Constitution of separate "Participants' Takaful Fund".
o Constitution of "Shariah Advisory Board".
o Investments as per Shariah.
Main drivers of Takaful
o Piety (individual purification)
o Brotherhood (mutual assistance)
o Charity (Tabarru or contribution)
o Mutual Guarantee
o Community well-being as opposed to profit maximization.
Objections to Conventional Insurance are based on the Elements of:
o Uncertainty - Gharar
o Gambling - Maisir
o Interest - Riba
o Under Writing + Investment Profit belongs to the Company
Uncertainty - Gharar:
Conventional insurance contract is basically a contract of exchange (mu'awadat) i.e. buying and selling whereby policy (indemnity) is sold as goods, with the premium as the price or consideration. The consideration must be certain for an exchange contract. The amount to be paid is not known. The time it will occur is not known. Thus, it involves an element of uncertainty in the subject matter of the insurance sales contract, which renders it void under the Islamic law.
Gambling - Maisir:
The insured loses the money paid for the premium when the insured event does not occur. The company will be in deficit if claims are higher than premium.
Interest - Riba
"Allah has permitted trading and forbidden riba" (Al Baqarah 2 : 275) Insurance funds invested in financial instruments which contain element of Riba.
Comparing Takaful to Conventional Insurance
The surplus is shared between the participants with a takaful operator. The sharing of such profit (surplus) may be in a ratio 5:5 , 6:4 etc. as mutually agreed between the contracting parties. Generally, these risk sharing arrangements allow the takaful operator to share in the underwriting results from operations as well as the favourable performance returns on invested premiums.
Cooperative risk sharing occurs among participants where a takaful operator earns a fee for services (as a Wakeel or Agent) and does not participate or share in any underwriting results as these belong to participants as surplus or deficit. Under the Al-Wakala model the operator may also charge a fund management fee and performance incentive fee.
General Takaful - offers all kinds of non-life risk coverages products like motor takaful, marine takaful, fire takaful, home takaful, shop takaful, etc.
Family Takaful - offers life coverage.
Banca-Takaful - tailored coverages for banks.
The first ever Takaful company was established in 1979 - the Islamic Insurance Company of Sudan. There are now more than seventy Takaful Companies in over 20 countries. Takaful premium is 0.1% (USD3 billion in 2004) of the global insurance premium and is expected to increase to USD12.5 billion by 2015. It is claimed by certain quarters that the average growth rate is higher than conventional insurance companies. Non - Muslims are also increasingly opting for Takaful products for commercial benefits.
Foundations of Takaful in Pakistan
1949 - Declaration made in the Objectives Resolution adopted by the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan "Sovereign state of Pakistan is established to enable Muslims individually and collectively to order their lives in accordance with the injunctions of the Holy Qur'an and Sunnah".
1973 - The Constitution of Pakistan declares Pakistan as "Islamic Republic of Pakistan and Islam as the official religion of the state".
1985 - Objectives Resolution was made 'substantive' part of the constitution.
1983 to 1989 - The Council of Islamic Ideology held its sessions in order to survey the Islamic Insurance System.
1992 - The Council of Islamic Ideology submitted its report on Islamic Insurance System.
2000 - The Insurance Ordinance defines the term "Takaful" in Section 2 and provides for establishment of Takaful companies in the country.
September 2005 - Takaful Rules notified.
Takaful Prospects in Pakistan
In a country like Pakistan where 97% population is Muslim, the demand for insurance is increasing with the increase in per capita income. The personal lines insurance business (leasing, health, medicare) is also growing at a higher rate than other conventional classes. The government is also encouraging Islamic banking on sound footing and hence there are great prospects for Takaful in Pakistan.
Saima Batool teaches at the International University of Chabahar, Iran. Jafar Razi Khan is a doctoral student in Divinity at the Imam Sadiq University in Tehran. Readers are welcome to discuss aspects of this article with the authors at email@example.com
Source: The Pakistan Accountant, January-March 2009
posted @ 12:13 PM, ,
ICAEW Fines Grant Thornton Over Audit Sign-Offs
Friday, July 10, 2009
The firm agreed to pay a £2,500 fine and £3,410 in a consent order with the ICAEW's investigation committee after issuing 43 audit reports that had not been signed off by a responsible individual of the firm, contravening audit regulation 4.05.
Andrew Turpin of business recovery specialists P&A Partnership was ordered to pay a regulatory penalty of £1000 for drawing unauthorised remuneration although it was subsequently approved, found the ICAEW's insolvency licensing committee in its latest batch of disciplinary orders and regulatory decisions.
posted @ 11:28 AM, ,
Job in Mobilink
Thursday, July 9, 2009
Category: Financial Services
Total Position: 1
Job Type: Permanent ( firstshift )
Job Location: Islamabad
Gender: Doesn't Matter
Minimum Education Bachelor's Degree
Degree Title: ACMA / CA Inter / MBA degree
Career Level: Experienced (Non-Manager)
Minimum Experience: 5 Years(Minimum 5 years experience in Accounting / Finance/Taxation, including 2 Years of corporate taxation experience)
Vist here to Apply By: Jul 11, 2009
posted @ 2:49 PM, ,
- Money market opened at 12.50%. Overnight repo rates topped at 12.50% as well before market declined and closed at 10.35%.Market is functioning at decent pace and no liquidity crunch has been witnessed in last few days.
- Inter-bank opened at 81.55 & 81.60.Market topped at 81.72 since stress on the demand side of US dollars depreciated the local currency. Rupee lost fifteen basis points at bid and offer to close at 81.70 & 81.75
- Pakistan has been ranked 100 among 121 world economies featured in ‘The Global Enabling Trade Report 2009’– a drop of 16 places.
- Pakistan’s neighbors secured slightly better positions even though their ranking deteriorated, India placed 76 and Sri Lanka 78 compared to 71 & 70 last year. Bangladesh slipped one spot to 111 while Nepal improved to 110 from 116. East Asian economies - Hong Kong and Singapore - occupy the top two positions in the Enabling Trade Index ranking, followed by Switzerland, Denmark and Sweden, according to The Global Enabling Trade Report 2009, released by the World Economic Forum. The Report, second edition, aims at presenting a cross-country analysis of the large number of measures facilitating trade.
- The Enabling Trade Index captures the free flow of goods over borders and to destination.
- The index breaks the enablers into four overall issue areas: market access, border administration, transport and communications infrastructure and the busines environment.
- Pakistan ranked 111 in the market access pillar, 63rd in business administration, 80 in transport and communications infrastructure and 102 in business environment.
posted @ 10:09 AM, ,
Latest Invention of WAPDA and KESC
Tuesday, July 7, 2009
Ministry of Power and Water
posted @ 10:44 PM, ,
- Ex-Refinery Price = 36.59
- General Sales Tax = 8.57
- Carbon Tax ------= 10.00
- IFEM--------------= 3.37
- Dealers Commiss. = 2.00
- Oil marketing com.=1.60
- Total Petrol Cost=62.13
posted @ 7:51 PM, ,
2. The matter has been considered. Though the tax in respect of trading of shares is deducted from the member by the stock exchange yet the tax so withheld under clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 233A of the Income Tax Ordinance, 2001, does not pertain to him exclusively. He is only an intermediary and the tax withheld under the aforesaid provisions of law, belongs to the seller of shares also who traded through him. Legally speaking, the seller is entitled to take the credit of the tax so withheld as well as the member in respect of the shares owned by him. The member of the stock exchange is the custodian of the record,as the transactions of shares are made through him on the stock exchange.
3. It is, therefore, clarified that the Member would certify the quantum of tax withheld from each person traded through him and shall furnish a statement, to the concerned Director General, RTO, for the verification of claim of the taxpayers who traded the shares through him.
posted @ 7:48 PM, ,
Clarification Regarding Adjustments Of Payments Through Ledger Account
Monday, July 6, 2009
2. Though the word “adjustment” has not been defined in the Ordinance yet it as a matter of common prudence that it is at par with the word “paid”, because by such “adjustment” the payables are reduced which amounts to “actual payment” by other means.
posted @ 12:37 PM, ,
Income Tax Audit In Pakistan
Saturday, July 4, 2009
What is an Income Tax Audit?
An income tax audit is an inspection conducted by a government representative to confirm that someone's taxes were prepared correctly. Tax audits are very intimidating for most taxpayers, and the important thing to remember about audit notices is that they are not accusations, and that taxpayers are not being required to prove that they are not guilty of something when they are audited. Audits are usually performed on an entirely random basis, with taxpayers being selected by the Commissioner of Income Tax.
In an income tax audit, the taxpayer is required to show documentation and support for every aspect of his or her tax return. For example, if someone claims itemized deductions, receipts for those deductions must be produced, in addition to justifications for why the taxpayer felt that those deductions were legitimate. Tax deducted by bank on Cash withdrawal on higher side than compare to business activity it also attract for tax audit. In addition, taxpayers must open their accounting methods to inspection, and demonstrate that all of their income was in fact properly documented and claimed on the tax return.
Audits are usually performed because a taxpayer was randomly selected by the Commissioner of Income Tax. Certain areas of tax returns are especially prone to errors, so the Commissioner of Income Tax may weight people with things like high income, high levels of deductions, or repeated business losses for audits. Taxpayers may also be selected for auditing when they fail to pay their taxes, or when they request an installment plan to pay taxes.
In a correspondence income tax audit, the taxpayer is sent a notice and asked to return documents by mail. There are two types of Income Tax Audit which are as follows:-
1. Field Audits
Many taxpayers in pakistan are not aware of this kind of income tax audit. Field audits occur when FBR agents come to the taxpayer in the office to discuss tax issues as such power was conferred by the FBR to the selected Chartered Accountants Firm in shape of outsourcing of tax audit in the recent Finance Act, 2009.
2. Office audits
Office Audit requires the taxpayer to show up in a government office like Regional Tax Office / Large Tax Payer Unit with supporting documentation on a specific day or time. The FBR agent/ relevant Income Tax Officer/ Commissioner of Income Tax assigned to the case will review the material and make a determination on the basis of that review.
Sometimes, someone's taxes are audited and everything appears to be in order, in which case no action is taken. In other instances, over or underpayment of taxes is detected, and the issue will need to be corrected. If the taxpayer engaged in activity which is fraudulent or illegal, he or she can face legal penalties in addition to fines.
Mistakes happen on everyone's taxes now and then, and as long as taxpayers can demonstrate that an error is a true accident or the result of an action taken in good faith, the government is usually satisfied with a correction and no other action. Taxpayers can make the audit process smoother by taking the time to fully prepare for an income tax audit so that all of the information is organized and available, and by being polite and helpful to the auditing team. Consulting chartered accountant or income tax lawyer can be advisable if someone is preparing for an income tax audit.
The business community in Sindh and Punjab is perturbed at the flurry of notices received from the tax department in the last number of months. In certain instances, the department had re-opened cases of tax returns filed over the past five years. Taxpayers have been advised to make prompt payment to avoid tax evasion.
From the FBR point of view, it was to improve recovery the FBR has started the exercise of selective audit to” bridge the gap between the tax potential and its realisation.”
Presently, a taxpayer is required to maintain prescribed documents and records for five years from the end of relevant tax year. As per recent amendment in U/s. 174,176, 177 & 210 of the Income Tax Ordinance, 2001, require the taxpayer to maintain documents and records till final decision in any proceedings for assessment, appeal, revision, reference, petition and any proceedings before Alternative Dispute Resolution Committee.
As reported, the Board is considering outsourcing of tax audits to Chartered Accountant Firms. To enable the Chartered Accountant Firms to conduct such tax audits, the Finance Act seeks to empower Chartered Accountant Firms, with the prior approval of the Commissioner of Income Tax, to obtain and retain information, record or computers for such time as necessary.
Similarly, the amendment empowers the Commissioner to delegate the powers to conduct the audit of persons selected for audit to a Firm appointed by the Board.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR INCOME TAX AUDIT
Things you will need:
· Copies of all affected tax returns
· Copies of Profit & Loss account and Balance Sheet
· Copies of all relevant receipts and other information
· Copies of Tax Challans & Other evidences for deduction of taxes
· Copy of Tax Computation
· Name and contact information for a tax accountant or lawyer
1. Step 1
Read the notice carefully. Some audits involve only parts of a single year's tax return, while others can include entire returns for multiple years. In addition, some audits request information by mail, while others require a meeting with an FBR agent/ relevant Income Tax Officer/ Income Tax Commissioner. Understanding what the FBR is asking for is vital to ensure that you prepare precisely for the specified audit.
2. Step 2
Start immediately. You will need plenty of time to pull your information together, to request information from others, such as buyers/ sellers, charities, credit card companies, and banks and to work with a tax professional.
3. Step 3
Consult a tax accountant or lawyer. The tax payment codes are extremely complex, and require years of study to fully comprehend. It's best to take the advice of professionals when responding to an audit. They can tell you what the audit means, what the consequences might be, and the exact information you will need to provide.
4. Step 4
Gather the required information. Hopefully, you stored all of the relevant receipts and other information when you filed your tax return, and so you will have an easy time of creating copies in preparation for the audit. If not, then you will need to locate all of the required information.
5. Step 5
Organize your information. Now that you have all of your information in place, put it in the proper order. All of the information should be laid out as in the audit notice. That way, it will be easier for you and your tax professional to double-check your information and have it ready for the response.
6. Step 6
Respond to the audit. If your audit is in person, either you or your tax professional can represent you to the FBR agent/ relevant Income Tax Officer/ Income Tax Commissioner. If you are not required to be at the audit, have your professional attend alone with a power of attorney. If your audit requires that you mail your response to the FBR, then send copies only and ensure that you've answered all of the issues outlined in the audit notice.
7. Step 7
Act on the FBR findings. You may have to pay an additional amount to the FBR, return part of a refund, or you may receive money back. You also have the right to appeal the FBR agent's findings to the Commissioner Appeal or the Appeals Division, and you can take your case to the High Court’s Tax Bench.
By: Muhammad Mustafa Rahim, Rahman Sarfaraz Rahim Iqbal Rafiq,Chartered Accountants
Sources:Complete Tax Solutions, English Law Dictionary, FBR
posted @ 1:31 PM, ,
Market is flooded with liquidity, as a consequence the overnight closed at 1% p.a.
A round of Pakistan-IMF meetings will initiate in Istanbul today. In this regard, the IMF has reportedly requested statistics on interest and amortization payments of major public sector enterprises, budgetary expenditures and revenue collection. In other news, the ADB and the IDB have jointly launched a US$500mn Islamic Investment Fund, mandated to invest in 12 countries including Pakistan
posted @ 12:16 PM, ,
List of the International Standards of Auditing - ISAs
Wednesday, July 1, 2009
- ISA 200 Objective and General Principles Governing an Audit of Financial Statements
- ISA 210 Terms of Audit Engagements
- ISA 220 Quality Control for Audits of Historical Financial Information
- ISA 230 Documentation
- ISA 240 The Auditor's Responsibility to Consider Fraud in an Audit of Financial statements
- ISA 250 Consideration of Laws and Regulations in an Audit of Financial Statements
- ISA 260 Communications of Audit Matters with Those Charged with Governance
- ISA 300 Planning and Audit of Financial Statements
- ISA 310 Knowledge of the Business
- ISA 315 Understanding the Entity and its Environment and Assessing the Risks of Material Misstatement
- ISA 320 Audit Materiality
- ISA 330 The Auditor's Procedures in Response to Assessed Risks
- ISA 400 Risk Assessments and Internal Control
- ISA 401 Auditing in a Computer Information Systems Environment
- ISA 402 Audit Considerations Relating to Entities Using Service Organisations
- ISA 500 Audit Evidence
- ISA 501 Audit Evidence - Additional Considerations for Specific Items
- ISA 505 External Confirmations
- ISA 510 Initial Engagements - Opening Balances
- ISA 520 Analytical Procedures
- ISA 530 Audit Sampling and Other Means of Testing
- ISA 540 Audit of Accounting Estimates
- ISA 545 Auditing Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures
- ISA 550 Related Parties
- ISA 560 Subsequent Events
- ISA 570 Going Concern
- ISA 580 Management Representations
Using work of other experts
Audit conclusions and Audit report
- ISA 700 The Auditor's Report on Financial Statements
- ISA 710 Comparatives
- ISA 720 Other Information in Documents Containing Audited Financial Statements
- ISA 800 The Auditor's Report on Special Purpose Audit Engagements
- ISA 810 The Examination of Prospective Financial Information
posted @ 3:22 PM, ,
- To change the name of ICAP to a new name such as “The International Institute of Charered Accountants in Pakistan”
- To change the name of ICAP Magazine from “The Pakistan Accountant” to “The Global Accountant”
- To work on the Education Committee not Training Committee of ICAP and to ensure that ICAP offer few specializations such as “Islamic Finance, Banking Insurance”, Auditing and Assurance” , “Taxation, Fiscal and Corporate Laws”, “General Financial Management”, “Public Finance and Accountancy”.
- Mid career Accountants be offered a qualification like Assistant Chartered Accountant. This is something what Japan has done as Assistant CPA and ACCA has done like B.Sc. Hons. In Applied Accounting etc.
Do you agree with this Athar Zaidi's suggestions for ICAP.
posted @ 3:11 PM, ,
We are pleased to inform you that the Election Committee has officially declared the results of ICAP Elections to the Council and its two Regional Committees held on June 27, 2009.
The names of the candidates declared elected are as under:
1.1 Northern Region – Zone A
(1) Hafiz Mohammad Yousaf
(2) Mr. Mohammad Abdullah Yusuf
(3) Mr. Rashid Rahman Mir
(4) Ch. Nazir Ahmad Asad
(5) Mr. Naeem Akhtar Sheikh
1.2 Northern Region – Zone B
(1) Mr. Rafaqat ullah Babar
1.3 Southern Region – Zone A
(1) Mr. Abdul Rahim Suriya
(2) Mr. Pervez Muslim
(3) Mr. Khalid Rahman
(4) Mr. Yacoob Suttar
(5) Mr. Zahid Iqbal Bhatti
(6) Mr. Nadeem Yousuf Adil
(7) Mr. Ahmad Saeed
(8) Shaikh Saqib Masood
1.4 Southern Region – Zone B
(1) Mr. Adnan Zaman
2 REGIONAL COMMITTEES
2.1 Northern Region – Zone A
(1) Mr. Irfan Ilyas
(2) Mr. Muhammad Awais
(3) Mr. Mohammad Ali Latif
(4) Mr. Faisal Iqbal Khawaja
(5) Mr. Shibli Islam Rehan
2.2 Southern Region – Zone A
(1) Mr. Saad Kaliya
(2) Mr. Adnan Ahmad Mufti
(3) Mr. Riaz A. Rehman Chamdia
(4) Syed Najamul Hussain
(5) Mr. Khalilullah Shaikh
posted @ 10:20 AM, ,